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Author Archives: Catrina Chijian

Agarose Gel and Running Buffer Recipes

Agarose Gel Recipes

  • Agarose (see chart)
  • 1x running buffer
  • 0.1% EtBr (0.5mg/mL stock solution)
  • Microwave for 1-3 minutes until agarose is dissolved, watching carefully as to not over boil solution
  • Add EtBr after microwaving
  • Make 100 mL of agarose solution for a typical cast
% Agarose concentration DNA resolution
0.5 1– 30 kb
0.7 800 – 1.2k bp
1.0 500 – 10k bp
1.2 400 – 7k bp
1.5 200 – 3k bp
2.0 100-2k bp

DNA Running Buffers

10X TAE (for fragments >4kb)

  • 48.4 g Tris base
  • 11.4 mL glacial acetic acid
  • 50 mM EDTA
  • QS with H2O to 1L

10X TBE (For 0.1-3kb fragments and for higher voltages of >150V)

  • 108 g Tris
  • 55 g boric acid
  • 9.3 g EDTA
  • QS with H2O to 1L

Typically, gels can be run at 80-150V until dye line is most of the way through the gel. Take care that voltage isn’t too high or the gel will melt.

DNA Gel Loading Dye Recipes

Agarose Gel Loading Dye Recipes (6x) When considering which DNA loading dye to use it’s important to select a dye that won’t obscure your sample. i.e. If looking for a product expected to be ~300 bp, bromophenol blue will run with your sample and may obscure it. With 6x dye, load equivalent ratio of 5… Continue Reading

Biological Buffer Reference Chart

A reference chart for biological buffers, their pKa, effective pH range, and applicable molecular weights. Values based on 25 ° C and 100mM buffer. Buffer (100mM) pKa (25°C) effective pH range Molecular Weight (g/mol) ACES 6.78 6.1-7.5 182.2 Acetate 4.76 3.6-5.6 59.04 ADA 6.59 6.0-7.2 190.2 Ammonia 9.25 8.8-9.9   AMP 9.69 8.7-10.4 89.14 AMPD… Continue Reading

Blood Pressure Chart

A blood pressure chart for interpreting systolic (the measurement of the heart contracting and pumping blood) and diastolic (the measure of when the heart is relaxed) numbers. A systolic pressure of 140+ indicates high blood pressure, regardless of diastolic pressure A diastolic pressure of 90+ indicates high blood pressure, regardless of systolic pressure A systolic… Continue Reading

SDS Gel Dyes & Buffers

Recipes for running SDS protein gel electrophoresis, SDS sample loading dye, and Coomassie staining protein gels. 5x SDS loading dye 125mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.75 20% (v/v) glycerol 10% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol 4% SDS 0.02% bromophenol blue 5x Running buffer (1L) 72 g glycine 15 g Tris-HCl 5 g SDS Gel Stain 2.5g/L Coomassie Blue 45% (v/v)… Continue Reading

Eyes, Ears & Skin Charts

Medical abbreviation chart for the special senses ear & eye and the integumentary system. Ear   AC air conduction AD right ear AOM acute otitis media AS left ear AU both ears CAPD central auditory processing disorder dB decibel EE ear & eye ENT ear, nose & throat ET Eustachian tube HD hearing distance HL… Continue Reading

Nervous & Respiratory Systems

A medical reference and study chart for the nervous and respiratory systems. Nervous System   Ach acetylcholine AD Alzheimer disease, Alzheimer dementia ADD attention deficit disorder ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ALD adrenoleukodystrophy ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig disease) aanesth, anes anesthesia ANS autonomic nervous system BAER brainstem auditory evoked response BBB blood-brain barrier… Continue Reading

Muscle & Bone

A reference and study chart for abbreviations of the muscular and skeletal systems. Muscular System   abd abduction ACL anterior cruciate ligament add adduction ADL activities of daily living ART active resistance training BMD Becker muscular dystrophy DTR deep tendon reflex EMG electromyography EMS electric muscle stimulator EOM extraocular muscles IM intramuscular Lig, L ligament… Continue Reading

Reproductive & Urinary Reference Chart

A study chart for reproductive and urinary system medical abbreviations. Female Reproductive System   Ab, AB abortion AFP alpha fetoprotein ARM, AROM artificial rupture of membranes ART assisted reproductive technology BSE breast self-examination BSO bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy BWS battered woman syndrome C section, CS Cesarean section CVS chorionic villus sampling Cx cervix D&C dilation & curettage… Continue Reading

Endocrine and Gastrointestinal Abbreviation Charts

Endocrine system and gastrointestinal system abbreviation study and reference charts. Endocrine System   AC adrenal cortex ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone ADH antidiuretic hormone CAH congenital adrenal hyperplasia DI diabetes insipidus DKA diabetic ketoacidosis DM diabetes mellitus FSH follicle-stimulating hormone GH growth hormone HCG human chorionic gonadotropin HGF human growth factor ICSH interstitial cell-stimulating hormone IDDM insulin-dependent… Continue Reading

Blood and Cardiovascular Abbreviation Charts

Reference and study charts for convenience. Blood-related Abbreviations   ABMT autologous bone marrow transplant ABO blood groups AC anticoagulant ACT anticoagulant therapy agg, aggl agglutination AHF antihemophilic factor AIHA autoimmune hemolytic anemia ALL acute lymphocytic leukemia AML acute myelogenous leukemia APA antipernicious anemia (factor) AUL acute undifferentiated leukemia B, bl, bld blood baso basophil bl… Continue Reading

Specialized Medical Care and Management Abbreviations

Reference tables for the abbreviations for managed care, U.S. agencies and organizations, and specialized areas/facilities for medical purposes. ‘Managed Care’ refers to common abbreviations when dealing with insurance and payments in the medical field. ‘Agencies & Organizations of the United States’ lists the most common/relevant abbreviations. ‘Specialized areas and facilities’ is a reference chart for… Continue Reading

Medical Profession Abbreviations

A reference chart of professional designations in the medical field. ARNP Advaced Registered Nurse Practitioner ATR-BC Registered Art Therapist-Board Certified CCT Certified Cardiographic Technician CDA Certified Dental Assistant CDT Certified Dental Technician CMA Certified Medical Assistant CNMT Certified Nuclear Medicine Technologist CO Certified Orthotist COMT Certified Ophthalmic Medical Technologist COT Certified Ophthalmic Technician COTA Certified… Continue Reading

Medical Assessment Abbreviations

Common medical assessment abbreviations separated into two categories: diagnostic testing and health assessment. ‘Diagnostic testing’ refers to various test types and molecular levels that can be requested to assess and diagnose patients. ‘Health assessment’ refers to the various physical conditions and their descriptions. Diagnostic Testing   ac phos, ACP acid phosphatase AFP alpha fetoprotein A/G… Continue Reading

Amino Acid Reference Chart

A reference chart for the 20 human amino acids and associated properties.  Code (1): Refers to each amino acid’s single letter code Code (3): Refers to each amino acid’s three letter code pKa: Refers to the negative logarithm of thedissociation constant for the functional group of the amino acid. Also known asthe pH below which… Continue Reading

Codon Chart

A reference codon chart for the three-letter RNA codes and their corresponding amino acids. Below are the nucleotides and their abbreviations, followed by amino acids and their full name, three letter code, and single letter abbreviations.    2nd position         1st position U C A G 3rd position U Phe Ser Tyr… Continue Reading

Common Scientific Constants

A reference chart of some common physical and mathematical constants. Physical  & Mathematical Constants     Atmosphere (standard) atm 101.325 × 103 Pa Atomic mass unit (Dalton) amu 1.661 × 10-24 g Avogadro’s number N 6.022 × 1023/mol Base of natural log e 2.718 Becquerel Bq 1 dps Boltzmann constant k 1.381 × 10-23 J/K… Continue Reading

Scientific Unit Abbreviations

A reference table of scientific units and their abbreviations as well as some prefixes used in the international system of units.  Unit Abbreviations A ampere Å angstrom atm atmosphere Bq becquerel C coulomb °C Celsius, centigrade cal calorie cc cubic centimeter Ci, c Curie cm centimeter cpm counts per minute Da dalton dam decameter dB… Continue Reading

Pharmacology Abbreviations

A reference table for commonly used pharmacology terms and abbreviations. Drugs   ACD Anticonvulsant drug ACR Adverse drug reaction ASA Acetylsalicyclic acid (aspirin) CD Curative dose D, dos Dose, dosage DAW Dispense as written DAWN Drug Abuse Warning Network DIG Digitalis DSB Drug-seeking behavior IND Investigational new drug INH Isoniazid (TB drug) LD Lethal dose… Continue Reading