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Citations and References: Altogen® Transfection Kits

Citations and References: Altogen® Transfection Reagents

Nature Medicine 2016 22(10):1131–1139. A Long Non-Coding RNA Defines an Epigenetic Checkpoint … Wang et al [PDF]

Nature 2008 454(7203):523-7. Innate immunity induced by composition-dependent RIG-I …Saito et al [PDF]

Cell Rep 2018 22(2):523. The Foxo1-Inducible Transcriptional Repressor Zfp125 … Gustavo et al [PDF]

Molecular Therapy 2018. Liposome Lipid-Based Formulation … Guo et al [PDF]

Biomolecules. Cardiac Targeting Bio-Distribution, Imaging Application, Transduction … Zahid et al [PDF]

PLoS One 2018. A type 2 diabetes disease module with a high influence for Cdk2 and PTPLAD1 … Boutchueng-Djidjou et al [PDF]

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2017. Inhibition of Src family kinases improves cognitive function after intraventricular … Liu et al [PDF]

Nature Medicine 2016. The long noncoding RNA Chaer defines an epigenetic checkpoint in cardiac hypertrophy. Wang et al [PDF]

Molecular Therapy Nucleic Acids 2017. Reverse Expression of Aging-Associated Molecules through Transfection … Kim et al [PDF]

The Journal of Pathology 2015 235(5):731–744. BDNF repairs podocyte damage by microRNA-mediated … Min Li et al [PDF]

Nature Communications 2016. miR-93 regulates Msk2-mediated chromatin remodelling in diabetic nephropathy. Badal et al [PDF]

PLOS ONE 2018. KRAS mutant allele-specific expression knockdown in pancreatic cancer … Rao et al [PDF]

Molecular Therapy: Nucleic Acids 2018. Inflammatory-Related P62 Triggers Malignant Transformation … Xin et al [PDF]

Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2016. Synaptopodin Limits TRPC6 Podocyte Surface Expression … Yu et al [PDF]

Cardiovascular Research. 2016. Modulators of ventricular apoptosis in a rat model of … Zungu-Edmondson et al [PDF]

Hypertension 2015. Hypoxia-independent upregulation of placental hypoxia factor-1 gene expression … Iriyama T et al [PDF]

Diabetologia 2015. Silencing of miR-195 reduces diabetic cardiomyopathy in C57BL/6 mice. Zheng et al [PDF]

J Virol 2015; 89(23):11761-72. Mutational Disruption of cis-Acting Replication Element 2C in Smithee S et al [PDF]

J Biol Chem 2017 292(2):407-416. Protein Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase 1B in Calpain-dependent … Zhang et al [PDF]

Am J Pathol 2016. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme 9 Phosphorylation as a Novel Mechanism for … Tomasi et al [PDF]

Virus Res 2016 Jul 15;220:136-49. Reversion to wildtype of a mutated and nonfunctional … Smithee et al [PDF]

Drug Design Development and Therapy 2015 9:2233. Promoting endothelial function by S-nitrosoglutathione … Khan et al [PDF]

Cardiovascular Research 2016. Modulators of right ventricular apoptosis … Zungu-Edmondson et al [PDF]

The Journal of Inf Diseases 2016 213:1661. Inhibition of MicroRNA-195 Prevents Apoptosis and Multiple … Zheng et al [PDF]

Neurobiol Dis. 2013 54:206–215. Astrocyte GRK2 as a novel regulator of glutamate transport and brain damage. Nijboer et al [PDF]

Dev Biol. 2014 393:71–83. Transcriptional inhibition of etv2 expression is essential for embryonic … Schupp et al [PDF]

Journal of Biological Chemistry 2012 287(19):16037. Eukaryotic Translation Elongation Factor 1A Induces… Itagaki et al [PDF]

Cell Metab 2017 26(3):509–522.Global analysis of plasma lipids identifies liver-derived acylcarnitines … Simcox et al. [PDF]

PNAS 2018 115:E5243. Temperature regulates NFκB dynamics and function through timing of A20 transcription Harper et al [PDF]

Scientific Reports 2016. Inflammatory cytokine IL6 cooperates with CUDR to aggravate hepatocyte stem cells.. Zheng et al [PDF]

PLoS ONE 2011. Distinctive Patterns USP19-Mediated Growth Regulation in Normal and Malignant… Lu et al [PDF]

FEBS J 2016. Transforming growth factor B1 antagonizes the transcription expression and vascular signaling … Sen et al [PDF]

Journal of Experimental Medicine 2015. The Dishevelled-binding protein CXXC5 negatively regulates … Kim et al [PDF]

Am J Pathology 2011. Defective myofibroblast formation from mesenchymal stem cells … Cieslik et al [PDF]

Endocrine-Related Cancer 2016. 23(8):595-607. Role of protein S in castration-resistant prostate cancer-like cells. Ning et al [PDF]

PLoS One 2014 SOX2 expression regulated by BRAF and contributes to poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. Lundberg et al [PDF]

BMC Cancer. (2017) 17: 169. Altering calcium influx for selective destruction of breast tumor. Yu et al [PDF]

Rep Biochem Mol Biol. 2015 3(2):76-81.Expression of TGF-β3 in isolated fibroblasts from foreskin. Mahmoudi et al [PDF]

J S Med. 2016 Dec;13(12):1834-1843. Off-Target Effect of Sildenafil on Postsurgical … Salmasi et al [PDF]

International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012. (3):4. Therapeutic Applications of siRNA: A Review. Kumar N et al [PDF]

Nature Methods. 2009. 6:305-309. Journeys across the membrane. Nathan Blow [PDF]

Nature Biotechnology. 2011 29(4):341-5. Delivery of siRNA to the mouse brain by … Alvarez-Erviti et al [PDF]

Hypertension. 2014 63(2):353-61. Tissue transglutaminase contributes to … Liu et al [PDF]

Macromol Biosci. Multifunctional Lipid DNA Nanoparticles Efficient Gene Delivery … Sun et al [PDF]

PLoS Pathogens. 2012 8(8) Uridine composition of the poly-U/UC tract of HCV RNA … Schnell et al [PDF]

J Proteome Res. 2012(11) Retinal proteome analysis in a mouse model of oxygen-induced … Kim et al [PDF]

J Transl Med. 2010 15;8:133. Prevention of hyperglycemia-induced myocardial apoptosis … Zhang et al [PDF]

Hypertension. 2015 65(2):430-9. Neurokinin 3 receptor and phosphocholine transferase… Parchim et al [PDF]

PLoS Pathog. 2014 10(10) Exosomes from hepatitis C infected patients transmit HCV … Bukong et al [PDF]

Journal of General Virology. 2008 89:1978. Role of retinoic acid inducible gene-I in human … Liao et al [PDF]

PLoS One. 2012 (7): Pharmacological Inhibition of Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 … Finetti et al [PDF]

Journal of Neuroscience. 2013 33(44). Foxo3a Transcriptionally Upregulates AQP4 and Induces … Kapoor et al [PDF]

PLOS ONE. 2014. SOX2 Expression Is Regulated by BRAF and … Lundberg et al [PDF]

Hypertension. 2012 59(1):158-66. Role of uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase … Gao et al [PDF]

Gastroenterology. 2011 141(2) Differential type I interferon-mediated autophagic trafficking … Desai et al [PDF]

The American Journal of Pathology. 2011 179(4). Defective Myofibroblast Formation Mesenchymal Stem Cells … Cieslik et al [PDF]

Circulation Research. 2010 15;107(8). Kruppel-like factor-4 transcriptionally regulates … Cowan et al [PDF]

Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2011. Regulatory Factor X1-induced Down-regulation of Transforming … Feng et al [PDF]

RNA. 2010 16(11):2108-19. RNase L releases a small RNA from HCV RNA that refolds … Malathi et al [PDF]

Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 2010. Identification of protein kinases that control ovarian hormone… Sirotkin et al [PDF]

FEBS Letters 2009 (583). MicroRNA 125a and its regulation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene … Zhang et al [PDF]

Cellular Physiology 2011. Identification of MicroRNAs Controlling Human Ovarian Cell Proliferation … Sirotkin et al [PDF]

Clinical Cancer Research 2010 16(16) Inhibition of Hypoxia Inducible Factor1 by Dihydroxyphenylethanol … Terzuoli et al [PDF]

Oncogene. 2012. EGFR signaling upregulates expression of microsomal prostaglandin E … Donnini et al [PDF]

PLoS One 2011 Distinctive patterns of USP19-mediated growth regulation in normal and malignant cells… Lu et al [PDF]

Carcinogenesis 2014. A mechanistic study of the proapoptotic effect of tolfenamic acid … Jeong et al [PDF]

Diabetologia. 2012 55(7):2069-79. The p47phox- and NADPH oxidase organiser 1 … Youn et al [PDF]

Leukemia 2011 (25). Hypoxia-microRNA-16 downregulation induces VEGF expression … Dejean et al [PDF]

Nature Cell Biology 2013. Protein interaction switches coordinate Raf-1 and MST2/Hippo … Romano et al [PDF]

BMC Cancer. 2012 12(69). Regulation of p14ARF expression by miR-24 … Kwong-Him To et al [PDF]

British Journal of Cancer. 2012 107(3):516-26. TIGAR induces p53-mediated cell-cycle … Madan et al [PDF]

Data Brief. 2016. Data supporting attempted caveolae-mediated phagocytosis of surface-fixed … Moerke et al [PDF]

Clin Lung Cancer. 2015 Nov;16(6):e121-9. miR Profiling Identifies Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6 Downregulation … Bar et al [PDF]

Oxid Med Cell Longev. Geniposide Protects against Obesity-Related Cardiac Injury through AMPK … Ma et al [PDF]

Clin Cancer Res 2010 16:4207-16. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor by dihydroxyphenylethanol … Terzuoli et al [PDF]

Nat Commun 2016. Signal transduction controls heterogeneous NFκB dynamics target gene expression.. Adamson A et al [PDF]

Cell Death Differ 2016 23:787. Unexpected requirement for a binding partner of the syntaxin … Dong et al [PDF]

Carcinogenesis 2013 34(10):2350. A mechanistic study of the proapoptotic effect of tolfenamic acid … Jeong et al [PDF]

J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015 0:174–185. Netrin-1 Abrogates Ischemia Reperfusion-induced Cardiac Mitochondrial … Siu et al [PDF]

Am J Pathology. 2010 177(4):1870-80. Role of ocular complement factor H in a murine model … Lyzogubov et al [PDF]

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2015. Role of Circulating miRNAs as Biomarkers in … Sarrion et al [PDF]

Cancer Research. 2011 71(15):5144-53. Inhibition of miR-193a expression by… Iliopoulos et al [PDF]

Jounal of Biological Chemistry. 2012 287(4):2907. Chaperoning of mutant p53 protein … Gogna et al [PDF]

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2017 Targeted Multifunctional Lipid ECO Plasmid DNA Nanoparticles as Efficient.. Sun et al [PDF]

Mol Cell Biol. 2013 33(7). SCO2 induces p53-mediated apoptosis by Thr845 phosphorylation … Madan et al [PDF]

J Clin Invest. GSK-3beta in mouse fibroblasts controls … Kapoor et al [PDF]

Insects 2019. Green, Yellow, and Red Fluorescent Protein … Muturi et al [PDF]

FASEB 2018 32(6):3278. SUMOylation regulates cytochrome P450 2E1 expression … Tomasi et al [PDF]

Patents

Patent WO2011150299A2. Treatment of myocardial infarction and vascular injury with netrin-1. Hua Cai [PDF]
Patent WO2010004003A2. Modified peptides as potent inhibitors of the psd-95/nmda receptor interaction. Anders Bach et al [PDF]
Patent WO2013055954A1. Biomarker for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Hua Cai [PDF]

PAT. NO. / Title
10,047,386 / Biomarker for abdominal aortic aneurysm
10,000,741 / Compositions and methods for enhanced gene expression in cone cells
9,902,754 / Modified peptides as potent inhibitors of the PSD-95/NMDA receptor interaction
9,775,894 / Methods and compositions for activation of innate immune responses through RIG-I like receptor signaling
9,758,782 / Inhibition of microRNA for treatment of sepsis
9,752,145 / Compositions and methods for reducing C/EBP homologous protein activity in myeloid-derived suppressor cells
9,241,967 / Modified peptides as potent inhibitors of the PSD-95/NMDA receptor interaction
9,050,298 / Method of treating ischemia/reperfusion injuries to a heart with netrin-1
8,962,582 / PKR activation via hybridization chain reaction
8,614,305 / Nonviral gene delivery vector iopamidol, protamine, ethiodized oil reagent (VIPER)
8,497,364 / Triggered RNAi
7,960,357 / PKR activation via hybridization chain reaction

Agarose Gel and Running Buffer Recipes

Agarose Gel Recipes Agarose (see chart) 1x running buffer 0.1% EtBr (0.5mg/mL stock solution) Microwave for 1-3 minutes until agarose is dissolved, watching carefully as to not over boil solution Add EtBr after microwaving Make 100 mL of agarose solution for a typical cast % Agarose concentration DNA resolution 0.5 1– 30 kb 0.7 800… Continue Reading

DNA Gel Loading Dye Recipes

Agarose Gel Loading Dye Recipes (6x) When considering which DNA loading dye to use it’s important to select a dye that won’t obscure your sample. i.e. If looking for a product expected to be ~300 bp, bromophenol blue will run with your sample and may obscure it. With 6x dye, load equivalent ratio of 5… Continue Reading

Biological Buffer Reference Chart

A reference chart for biological buffers, their pKa, effective pH range, and applicable molecular weights. Values based on 25 ° C and 100mM buffer. Buffer (100mM) pKa (25°C) effective pH range Molecular Weight (g/mol) ACES 6.78 6.1-7.5 182.2 Acetate 4.76 3.6-5.6 59.04 ADA 6.59 6.0-7.2 190.2 Ammonia 9.25 8.8-9.9   AMP 9.69 8.7-10.4 89.14 AMPD… Continue Reading

Blood Pressure Chart

A blood pressure chart for interpreting systolic (the measurement of the heart contracting and pumping blood) and diastolic (the measure of when the heart is relaxed) numbers. A systolic pressure of 140+ indicates high blood pressure, regardless of diastolic pressure A diastolic pressure of 90+ indicates high blood pressure, regardless of systolic pressure A systolic… Continue Reading

SDS Gel Dyes & Buffers

Recipes for running SDS protein gel electrophoresis, SDS sample loading dye, and Coomassie staining protein gels. 5x SDS loading dye 125mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.75 20% (v/v) glycerol 10% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol 4% SDS 0.02% bromophenol blue 5x Running buffer (1L) 72 g glycine 15 g Tris-HCl 5 g SDS Gel Stain 2.5g/L Coomassie Blue 45% (v/v)… Continue Reading

Eyes, Ears & Skin Charts

Medical abbreviation chart for the special senses ear & eye and the integumentary system. Ear   AC air conduction AD right ear AOM acute otitis media AS left ear AU both ears CAPD central auditory processing disorder dB decibel EE ear & eye ENT ear, nose & throat ET Eustachian tube HD hearing distance HL… Continue Reading

Nervous & Respiratory Systems

A medical reference and study chart for the nervous and respiratory systems. Nervous System   Ach acetylcholine AD Alzheimer disease, Alzheimer dementia ADD attention deficit disorder ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ALD adrenoleukodystrophy ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig disease) aanesth, anes anesthesia ANS autonomic nervous system BAER brainstem auditory evoked response BBB blood-brain barrier… Continue Reading

Muscle & Bone

A reference and study chart for abbreviations of the muscular and skeletal systems. Muscular System   abd abduction ACL anterior cruciate ligament add adduction ADL activities of daily living ART active resistance training BMD Becker muscular dystrophy DTR deep tendon reflex EMG electromyography EMS electric muscle stimulator EOM extraocular muscles IM intramuscular Lig, L ligament… Continue Reading

Reproductive & Urinary Reference Chart

A study chart for reproductive and urinary system medical abbreviations. Female Reproductive System   Ab, AB abortion AFP alpha fetoprotein ARM, AROM artificial rupture of membranes ART assisted reproductive technology BSE breast self-examination BSO bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy BWS battered woman syndrome C section, CS Cesarean section CVS chorionic villus sampling Cx cervix D&C dilation & curettage… Continue Reading

Endocrine and Gastrointestinal Abbreviation Charts

Endocrine system and gastrointestinal system abbreviation study and reference charts. Endocrine System   AC adrenal cortex ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone ADH antidiuretic hormone CAH congenital adrenal hyperplasia DI diabetes insipidus DKA diabetic ketoacidosis DM diabetes mellitus FSH follicle-stimulating hormone GH growth hormone HCG human chorionic gonadotropin HGF human growth factor ICSH interstitial cell-stimulating hormone IDDM insulin-dependent… Continue Reading

Blood and Cardiovascular Abbreviation Charts

Reference and study charts for convenience. Blood-related Abbreviations   ABMT autologous bone marrow transplant ABO blood groups AC anticoagulant ACT anticoagulant therapy agg, aggl agglutination AHF antihemophilic factor AIHA autoimmune hemolytic anemia ALL acute lymphocytic leukemia AML acute myelogenous leukemia APA antipernicious anemia (factor) AUL acute undifferentiated leukemia B, bl, bld blood baso basophil bl… Continue Reading

Specialized Medical Care and Management Abbreviations

Reference tables for the abbreviations for managed care, U.S. agencies and organizations, and specialized areas/facilities for medical purposes. ‘Managed Care’ refers to common abbreviations when dealing with insurance and payments in the medical field. ‘Agencies & Organizations of the United States’ lists the most common/relevant abbreviations. ‘Specialized areas and facilities’ is a reference chart for… Continue Reading

Medical Profession Abbreviations

A reference chart of professional designations in the medical field. ARNP Advaced Registered Nurse Practitioner ATR-BC Registered Art Therapist-Board Certified CCT Certified Cardiographic Technician CDA Certified Dental Assistant CDT Certified Dental Technician CMA Certified Medical Assistant CNMT Certified Nuclear Medicine Technologist CO Certified Orthotist COMT Certified Ophthalmic Medical Technologist COT Certified Ophthalmic Technician COTA Certified… Continue Reading

Medical Assessment Abbreviations

Common medical assessment abbreviations separated into two categories: diagnostic testing and health assessment. ‘Diagnostic testing’ refers to various test types and molecular levels that can be requested to assess and diagnose patients. ‘Health assessment’ refers to the various physical conditions and their descriptions. Diagnostic Testing   ac phos, ACP acid phosphatase AFP alpha fetoprotein A/G… Continue Reading

Amino Acid Reference Chart

A reference chart for the 20 human amino acids and associated properties.  Code (1): Refers to each amino acid’s single letter code Code (3): Refers to each amino acid’s three letter code pKa: Refers to the negative logarithm of thedissociation constant for the functional group of the amino acid. Also known asthe pH below which… Continue Reading

Codon Chart

A reference codon chart for the three-letter RNA codes and their corresponding amino acids. Below are the nucleotides and their abbreviations, followed by amino acids and their full name, three letter code, and single letter abbreviations.    2nd position         1st position U C A G 3rd position U Phe Ser Tyr… Continue Reading

Common Scientific Constants

A reference chart of some common physical and mathematical constants. Physical  & Mathematical Constants     Atmosphere (standard) atm 101.325 × 103 Pa Atomic mass unit (Dalton) amu 1.661 × 10-24 g Avogadro’s number N 6.022 × 1023/mol Base of natural log e 2.718 Becquerel Bq 1 dps Boltzmann constant k 1.381 × 10-23 J/K… Continue Reading

Scientific Unit Abbreviations

A reference table of scientific units and their abbreviations as well as some prefixes used in the international system of units.  Unit Abbreviations A ampere Å angstrom atm atmosphere Bq becquerel C coulomb °C Celsius, centigrade cal calorie cc cubic centimeter Ci, c Curie cm centimeter cpm counts per minute Da dalton dam decameter dB… Continue Reading

Pharmacology Abbreviations

A reference table for commonly used pharmacology terms and abbreviations. Drugs   ACD Anticonvulsant drug ACR Adverse drug reaction ASA Acetylsalicyclic acid (aspirin) CD Curative dose D, dos Dose, dosage DAW Dispense as written DAWN Drug Abuse Warning Network DIG Digitalis DSB Drug-seeking behavior IND Investigational new drug INH Isoniazid (TB drug) LD Lethal dose… Continue Reading

cGMP-grade Nanoparticle Transfection Reagent for In Vivo Delivery

Altogen Biosystems is a manufacturer of life science research products that includes in vivo transfection reagents designed for tissue-targeted delivery of biomolecules. Altogen’s Nanoparticle In Vivo Transfection Reagent was launched in 2008 and used in over 30 research publications demonstrating highly efficient delivery of cargo nucleic acids (siRNA, microRNA, mRNA, plasmid DNA, and small proteins)… Continue Reading

AltoFect v2.0 second generation transfection reagent

AltoFect v2.0, the second generation transfection reagent for primary cell types and hard-to-transfect cell lines. AltoFect transfection reagent exhibits up to 85% transfection efficiency in difficult-to-transfect cells such as T-cells, B-cells, and primary cell cultures. The advance has opened up the path to reliable in vitro testing of realistic responses from cells that were previously… Continue Reading

AltoFect Transfection Reagent for Primary Cells and Hard-to-transfect Cell Lines

Altogen Biosystems developed AltoFect™ Transfection Reagent – a new generation transfection reagent optimized for high transfection efficiency of primary cells and difficult-to-transfect cell lines. It has been successfully tested to deliver all types of nucleic acids (plasmid DNA constructs, si/miRNA, shRNA, dsRNA, mRNA, etc), small proteins, and negatively charged small molecules. Cancer cell lines and primary cell types, a… Continue Reading

CRISPR/Cas9 Transfection Optimization

Efficient delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 protein complex can be achieved efficiently through the use of cationic lipid-based transfection reagents. Cells may undergo electroporation to increase the probability of successful transfection. Once inside a target cell, the CRISPR/Cas9 protein complex requires no additional stimulation to start modifying the cell’s genome. Genome modification will occur within one… Continue Reading

Where to purchase cancer cell lines?

Cancer cell lines must be purchased from trustworthy vendors (i.e. ATCC, Sigma-Aldrich, DSMZ), along with signing licenses and agreements.  These large cell bank vendors have established good quality control processes, document controls and facilities that are able to offer well characterized cell lines. Continue Reading

Caspase-3/7 cell line screen for test compound

Caspase 3/7 activity is a cell based assay that measures apoptosis.  Commercially available reagents enable high-throughput screening of apoptosis inducing test compounds or contract research organizations can readily perform the compound screening.  A brief overview of the protocol is as follows: Cells in logarithmic growth are seeded in a 96-well plate Depending on the scope… Continue Reading

Tissue culture using flasks vs dishes for cell lines

Flasks and dishes that are cell culture coated are both acceptable consumables to use for cell culture.  Employing sterile techniques allows an experienced scientist to use either item, with pros and cons listed here for each system. Filtered Flasks Narrow opening translates to a lesser chance of contaminant entering the flask Ideal for long term… Continue Reading

Cell passage: How to correctly dilute and split cultured cells

There are many different cell culture techniques. Utilizing correct cell passaging methods is important to keep cell line in exponential growth curve, therefore making it a good model as a host for transfection experiments. “Cell passage” is a term used by other scientists to demonstrate the following process: Wash cells with PBS Detach cells from… Continue Reading

How to ship cells as a live culture?

Shipping cells to collaborators can be accomplished by either sending them a frozen aliquot on dry ice or by sending a live culture.  Sending a live culture has the advantages of the cells continuing their exponential growth to aid in timing of experiments.  This is accomplished by completely filling the flask with culture medium, closing… Continue Reading

How to determine cell viability?

Cell viability is a calculation of the number of viable or living cells within the total number of cells.  Although there are now commercially available alternatives to the historical method, trypan blue exclusion is the tried and true method commonly used in the lab.  Briefly, trypan blue dye is added to a cell suspension and… Continue Reading

How to determine mycoplasma contamination?

Mycoplasma contamination is a common occurrence and labs must be vigilant in monitoring and combating contamination issues.  Mycoplasma are bacteria extremely difficult to detect in cultured cells by visual inspection.  Many labs do not incorporate recurring mycoplasma testing until the lab experiences a contamination incident, at which time cleaning and testing procedures are put in… Continue Reading

Even cell distribution in the 6-well plate instead of a ring of cells around the edges?

Performing cell culture experiments in round well plates can often lead to troubling spatial dispersion of the cells.  This can be attributed to culture incubators having high vibrations, non-level incubators or bad practices such as swirling the plate after adding cells.  In order to achieve even distribution of cells in the wells of culture plates,… Continue Reading

Is it necessary to synchronize cells?

Exponentially growing cultured cells are growing at difference cell cycle stages, termed asynchronous.  Scientists are vigilant in their techniques to ensure they are using non-confluent cells prior to their experiments; thus, synchronization is not commonly employed.  However, synchronizing your cells can help improve the results of certain cell based assays such as viral integration or… Continue Reading

Low cell viability due to the freezing or thawing of cancer cell lines

Freeze slow, thaw fast.  The process of freezing and thawing cancer cell lines requires extreme attention to protocol.  For freezing, a good freezing media that contains DMSO is added to the correct number of cells following the manufacturer’s instructions.  The vital part of the freezing process is to ensur that the freezing process is slow. … Continue Reading