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Citations and References: Altogen® Transfection Kits

Citations and References: ALTOGEN® Transfection Reagents

Nature 2008 454(7203):523-7. Innate immunity induced by composition-dependent RIG-I …Saito et al [PDF]

Nature Medicine 2016 22(10):1131–1139. A Long Non-Coding RNA Defines an Epigenetic Checkpoint … Wang et al [PDF]

Cell Rep 2018 22(2):523. The Foxo1-Inducible Transcriptional Repressor Zfp125 … Gustavo et al [PDF]

Molecular Therapy 2018. Liposome Lipid-Based Formulation … Guo et al [PDF]

Biomolecules. Cardiac Targeting Bio-Distribution, Imaging Application, Transduction … Zahid et al [PDF]

PLoS One 2018. A type 2 diabetes disease module with a high influence for Cdk2 and PTPLAD1 … Boutchueng-Djidjou et al [PDF]

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2017. Inhibition of Src family kinases improves cognitive function after intraventricular … Liu et al [PDF]

Nature Medicine 2016. The long noncoding RNA Chaer defines an epigenetic checkpoint in cardiac hypertrophy. Wang et al [PDF]

Molecular Therapy Nucleic Acids 2017. Reverse Expression of Aging-Associated Molecules through Transfection … Kim et al [PDF]

The Journal of Pathology 2015 235(5):731–744. BDNF repairs podocyte damage by microRNA-mediated … Min Li et al [PDF]

Nature Communications 2016. miR-93 regulates Msk2-mediated chromatin remodelling in diabetic nephropathy. Badal et al [PDF]

PLOS ONE 2018. KRAS mutant allele-specific expression knockdown in pancreatic cancer … Rao et al [PDF]

Molecular Therapy: Nucleic Acids 2018. Inflammatory-Related P62 Triggers Malignant Transformation … Xin et al [PDF]

Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2016. Synaptopodin Limits TRPC6 Podocyte Surface Expression … Yu et al [PDF]

Cardiovascular Research. 2016. Modulators of ventricular apoptosis in a rat model of … Zungu-Edmondson et al [PDF]

Hypertension 2015. Hypoxia-independent upregulation of placental hypoxia factor-1 gene expression … Iriyama T et al [PDF]

Diabetologia 2015. Silencing of miR-195 reduces diabetic cardiomyopathy in C57BL/6 mice. Zheng et al [PDF]

J Virol 2015; 89(23):11761-72. Mutational Disruption of cis-Acting Replication Element 2C in Smithee S et al [PDF]

J Biol Chem 2017 292(2):407-416. Protein Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase 1B in Calpain-dependent … Zhang et al [PDF]

Am J Pathol 2016. Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme 9 Phosphorylation as a Novel Mechanism for … Tomasi et al [PDF]

Virus Res 2016 Jul 15;220:136-49. Reversion to wildtype of a mutated and nonfunctional … Smithee et al [PDF]

Drug Design Development and Therapy 2015 9:2233. Promoting endothelial function by S-nitrosoglutathione … Khan et al [PDF]

Cardiovascular Research 2016. Modulators of right ventricular apoptosis … Zungu-Edmondson et al [PDF]

The Journal of Inf Diseases 2016 213:1661. Inhibition of MicroRNA-195 Prevents Apoptosis and Multiple … Zheng et al [PDF]

Neurobiol Dis. 2013 54:206–215. Astrocyte GRK2 as a novel regulator of glutamate transport and brain damage. Nijboer et al [PDF]

Dev Biol. 2014 393:71–83. Transcriptional inhibition of etv2 expression is essential for embryonic … Schupp et al [PDF]

Journal of Biological Chemistry 2012 287(19):16037. Eukaryotic Translation Elongation Factor 1A Induces… Itagaki et al [PDF]

Cell Metab 2017 26(3):509–522.Global analysis of plasma lipids identifies liver-derived acylcarnitines … Simcox et al. [PDF]

PNAS 2018 115:E5243. Temperature regulates NFκB dynamics and function through timing of A20 transcription Harper et al [PDF]

Scientific Reports 2016. Inflammatory cytokine IL6 cooperates with CUDR to aggravate hepatocyte stem cells.. Zheng et al [PDF]

PLoS ONE 2011. Distinctive Patterns USP19-Mediated Growth Regulation in Normal and Malignant… Lu et al [PDF]

FEBS J 2016. Transforming growth factor B1 antagonizes the transcription expression and vascular signaling … Sen et al [PDF]

Journal of Experimental Medicine 2015. The Dishevelled-binding protein CXXC5 negatively regulates … Kim et al [PDF]

Am J Pathology 2011. Defective myofibroblast formation from mesenchymal stem cells … Cieslik et al [PDF]

Endocrine-Related Cancer 2016. 23(8):595-607. Role of protein S in castration-resistant prostate cancer-like cells. Ning et al [PDF]

PLoS One 2014 SOX2 expression regulated by BRAF and contributes to poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. Lundberg et al [PDF]

BMC Cancer. (2017) 17: 169. Altering calcium influx for selective destruction of breast tumor. Yu et al [PDF]

Rep Biochem Mol Biol. 2015 3(2):76-81.Expression of TGF-β3 in isolated fibroblasts from foreskin. Mahmoudi et al [PDF]

J S Med. 2016 Dec;13(12):1834-1843. Off-Target Effect of Sildenafil on Postsurgical … Salmasi et al [PDF]

International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012. (3):4. Therapeutic Applications of siRNA: A Review. Kumar N et al [PDF]

Nature Methods. 2009. 6:305-309. Journeys across the membrane. Nathan Blow [PDF]

Nature Biotechnology. 2011 29(4):341-5. Delivery of siRNA to the mouse brain by … Alvarez-Erviti et al [PDF]

Hypertension. 2014 63(2):353-61. Tissue transglutaminase contributes to … Liu et al [PDF]

Macromol Biosci. Multifunctional Lipid DNA Nanoparticles Efficient Gene Delivery … Sun et al [PDF]

PLoS Pathogens. 2012 8(8) Uridine composition of the poly-U/UC tract of HCV RNA … Schnell et al [PDF]

J Proteome Res. 2012(11) Retinal proteome analysis in a mouse model of oxygen-induced … Kim et al [PDF]

J Transl Med. 2010 15;8:133. Prevention of hyperglycemia-induced myocardial apoptosis … Zhang et al [PDF]

Hypertension. 2015 65(2):430-9. Neurokinin 3 receptor and phosphocholine transferase… Parchim et al [PDF]

PLoS Pathog. 2014 10(10) Exosomes from hepatitis C infected patients transmit HCV … Bukong et al [PDF]

Journal of General Virology. 2008 89:1978. Role of retinoic acid inducible gene-I in human … Liao et al [PDF]

PLoS One. 2012 (7): Pharmacological Inhibition of Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 … Finetti et al [PDF]

Journal of Neuroscience. 2013 33(44). Foxo3a Transcriptionally Upregulates AQP4 and Induces … Kapoor et al [PDF]

PLOS ONE. 2014. SOX2 Expression Is Regulated by BRAF and … Lundberg et al [PDF]

Hypertension. 2012 59(1):158-66. Role of uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase … Gao et al [PDF]

Gastroenterology. 2011 141(2) Differential type I interferon-mediated autophagic trafficking … Desai et al [PDF]

The American Journal of Pathology. 2011 179(4). Defective Myofibroblast Formation Mesenchymal Stem Cells … Cieslik et al [PDF]

Circulation Research. 2010 15;107(8). Kruppel-like factor-4 transcriptionally regulates … Cowan et al [PDF]

Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2011. Regulatory Factor X1-induced Down-regulation of Transforming … Feng et al [PDF]

RNA. 2010 16(11):2108-19. RNase L releases a small RNA from HCV RNA that refolds … Malathi et al [PDF]

Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 2010. Identification of protein kinases that control ovarian hormone… Sirotkin et al [PDF]

FEBS Letters 2009 (583). MicroRNA 125a and its regulation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene … Zhang et al [PDF]

Cellular Physiology 2011. Identification of MicroRNAs Controlling Human Ovarian Cell Proliferation … Sirotkin et al [PDF]

Clinical Cancer Research 2010 16(16) Inhibition of Hypoxia Inducible Factor1 by Dihydroxyphenylethanol … Terzuoli et al [PDF]

Oncogene. 2012. EGFR signaling upregulates expression of microsomal prostaglandin E … Donnini et al [PDF]

PLoS One 2011 Distinctive patterns of USP19-mediated growth regulation in normal and malignant cells… Lu et al [PDF]

Carcinogenesis 2014. A mechanistic study of the proapoptotic effect of tolfenamic acid … Jeong et al [PDF]

Diabetologia. 2012 55(7):2069-79. The p47phox- and NADPH oxidase organiser 1 … Youn et al [PDF]

Leukemia 2011 (25). Hypoxia-microRNA-16 downregulation induces VEGF expression … Dejean et al [PDF]

Nature Cell Biology 2013. Protein interaction switches coordinate Raf-1 and MST2/Hippo … Romano et al [PDF]

BMC Cancer. 2012 12(69). Regulation of p14ARF expression by miR-24 … Kwong-Him To et al [PDF]

British Journal of Cancer. 2012 107(3):516-26. TIGAR induces p53-mediated cell-cycle … Madan et al [PDF]

Data Brief. 2016. Data supporting attempted caveolae-mediated phagocytosis of surface-fixed … Moerke et al [PDF]

Clin Lung Cancer. 2015 Nov;16(6):e121-9. miR Profiling Identifies Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 6 Downregulation … Bar et al [PDF]

Oxid Med Cell Longev. Geniposide Protects against Obesity-Related Cardiac Injury through AMPK … Ma et al [PDF]

Clin Cancer Res 2010 16:4207-16. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor by dihydroxyphenylethanol … Terzuoli et al [PDF]

Nat Commun 2016. Signal transduction controls heterogeneous NFκB dynamics target gene expression.. Adamson A et al [PDF]

Cell Death Differ 2016 23:787. Unexpected requirement for a binding partner of the syntaxin … Dong et al [PDF]

Carcinogenesis 2013 34(10):2350. A mechanistic study of the proapoptotic effect of tolfenamic acid … Jeong et al [PDF]

J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015 0:174–185. Netrin-1 Abrogates Ischemia Reperfusion-induced Cardiac Mitochondrial … Siu et al [PDF]

Am J Pathology. 2010 177(4):1870-80. Role of ocular complement factor H in a murine model … Lyzogubov et al [PDF]

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2015. Role of Circulating miRNAs as Biomarkers in … Sarrion et al [PDF]

Cancer Research. 2011 71(15):5144-53. Inhibition of miR-193a expression by… Iliopoulos et al [PDF]

Jounal of Biological Chemistry. 2012 287(4):2907. Chaperoning of mutant p53 protein … Gogna et al [PDF]

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2017 Targeted Multifunctional Lipid ECO Plasmid DNA Nanoparticles as Efficient.. Sun et al [PDF]

Mol Cell Biol. 2013 33(7). SCO2 induces p53-mediated apoptosis by Thr845 phosphorylation … Madan et al [PDF]

J Clin Invest. GSK-3beta in mouse fibroblasts controls … Kapoor et al [PDF]

Insects 2019. Green, Yellow, and Red Fluorescent Protein … Muturi et al [PDF]

FASEB 2018 32(6):3278. SUMOylation regulates cytochrome P450 2E1 expression … Tomasi et al [PDF]


Patent WO2011150299A2. Treatment of myocardial infarction and vascular injury with netrin-1. Hua Cai [PDF]
Patent WO2010004003A2. Modified peptides as potent inhibitors of the psd-95/nmda receptor interaction. Anders Bach et al [PDF]
Patent WO2013055954A1. Biomarker for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Hua Cai [PDF]

10,047,386 / Biomarker for abdominal aortic aneurysm
10,000,741 / Compositions and methods for enhanced gene expression in cone cells
9,902,754 / Modified peptides as potent inhibitors of the PSD-95/NMDA receptor interaction
9,775,894 / Methods and compositions for activation of innate immune responses through RIG-I like receptor signaling
9,758,782 / Inhibition of microRNA for treatment of sepsis
9,752,145 / Compositions and methods for reducing C/EBP homologous protein activity in myeloid-derived suppressor cells
9,241,967 / Modified peptides as potent inhibitors of the PSD-95/NMDA receptor interaction
9,050,298 / Method of treating ischemia/reperfusion injuries to a heart with netrin-1
8,962,582 / PKR activation via hybridization chain reaction
8,614,305 / Nonviral gene delivery vector iopamidol, protamine, ethiodized oil reagent (VIPER)
8,497,364 / Triggered RNAi
7,960,357 / PKR activation via hybridization chain reaction

Lungs-Targeted Transfection Reagent: Safe and Effective Delivery of Biomolecules

August 2, 2023 Today we are happy to announce the launch of a new lungs-targeted in vivo transfection reagent. The reagent is crafted to transport small molecules, DNA, RNA, and proteins to the lungs tissue, aiming to treat lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis and lung cancer. The transfection reagent is a non-viral complex comprising nanoparticle-sized… Continue Reading

Validated Breast Cancer Xenograft Models

Altogen Labs is a GLP-compliant biotech laboratory that specializes in oncology research studies and provides preclinical testing of new medicines that often require a sequence of experiments utilizing various scientific methods to demonstrate novel compound anti-cancer efficacy, safety, and mechanism of action. Breast cancer is the second leading cancer that causes death in women globally,… Continue Reading

Crossing Blood-Brain Barrier and In Vivo Delivery of Negatively Charged Biomolecules into Glioblastoma Enabled by Altogen's Nanoparticle In Vivo Transfection Reagent

LAS VEGAS, NEVADA – July 19, 2021 – Altogen Biosystems, leading manufacturer of in vivo transfection products, announced today that Altogen’s nanoparticle-based in vivoTransfection reagent (catalog #5031) was demonstrated to be effective for glioblastoma-targeted co-delivery of plasmid DNA (3.7 kb) and chemically modified siRNA. This transfection reagent was used in over 30 research publications, demonstrating highly… Continue Reading

Stable Cell Line

A stable cell line is a population of cells that have been genetically modified to express a specific gene or RNA molecule of interest on a stable basis. Stable cell lines are generated by introducing the gene or RNA molecule into the cells and selecting for cells that have stably incorporated the genetic material and… Continue Reading

How do I increase transfection efficiency?

Transfection is considered as a major laboratory method to integrate protein, RNA and DNA molecules into tissues and cells. Delivery of plasmid DNA molecules containing gene inserts, messenger RNA and small interfering RNA molecules that regulate gene expression (i.e. microRNA, siRNA) into the primary cells and cancer cell lines have been extensively utilized by scientists.… Continue Reading

Nanoparticle In Vivo Transfection Reagent (Altogen)

July 27, 2021 – Altogen Biosystems® is a biotechnology manufacturing company that specializes in the development and testing of optimized cell transfection reagents and kits for both in vitro and in vivo delivery. In 2018 Altogen Biosystems launched the AltoFect transfection reagent formulated for difficult-to-transfect cells (like B-cells, T-cells), and primary cell cultures that are… Continue Reading

Quantitate in vitro anti-proliferation experiments using a metabolic assay (Alamarblue, MTT) vs measuring protein abundance (Sulforhodamine B)

The need to measure cell proliferation effects is vast, including testing the effects of growth factors, novel pharmacological agents, cytotoxicity assessment or investigating cell activation.  Cell proliferation assays utilize a stain or substrate to make a correlation between the readout and the number of remaining cells post-treatment.  However, the means of assessing cell number varies… Continue Reading

What is Chemical Transfection

Chemical transfection is a method used to deliver exogenous nucleic acids, such as DNA or RNA, into cells using chemical compounds. This method involves the use of transfection reagents, which are chemical compounds that can form complexes with nucleic acids and facilitate their uptake by cells. Chemical transfection typically involves mixing the nucleic acid of… Continue Reading

What is Transfection Reagent

A transfection reagent is a chemical compound used to deliver genetic material, such as DNA or RNA, into cells. Transfection is the process of introducing exogenous nucleic acids into cells, which can allow researchers to study gene function, gene regulation, and protein expression in various cell types. Transfection reagents facilitate the delivery of genetic material… Continue Reading

What is the best antibiotic to use for stable cell selection in mammalian cells?

There is a long list of antibiotics available to researchers when applying selective pressure in the creation of a stable cell line. The choices include zeocin, hygromycin, blasticidin, puromycin and geneticin (G418). Researchers use different antibiotics due to cost or availability in their lab. However, in reference to using antibiotics for the creation of a… Continue Reading

Is it necessary to synchronize cells?

Exponentially growing cultured cells are growing at difference cell cycle stages, termed asynchronous.  Scientists are vigilant in their techniques to ensure they are using non-confluent cells prior to their experiments; thus, synchronization is not commonly employed.  However, synchronizing your cells can help improve the results of certain cell based assays such as viral integration or… Continue Reading

What is Transient Transfection

Transient transfection is a method used to deliver exogenous nucleic acids, such as DNA or RNA, into cells on a temporary basis. This method involves the use of transfection reagents, which are chemical compounds that can form complexes with nucleic acids and facilitate their uptake by cells. Transient transfection typically involves mixing the nucleic acid… Continue Reading

DNA Copy Number Calculator

A DNA copy number calculator is a tool that calculates the copy number of a DNA sequence based on the number of reads obtained from a DNA sequencing experiment. The copy number refers to the number of copies of a specific DNA sequence present in a sample, and it can be used to assess the… Continue Reading

Difference between technical and biological replicates

The basic definitions of technical and biological replicates are as follows: Technical replicates: a test performed on the same sample multiple times; i.e., if there are triplicate non-treated samples, a technical replicate would be testing sample #1 of the non-treated multiple times Biological replicates: a test performed on biologically distinct samples representing an identical time… Continue Reading

cGMP-grade Nanoparticle Transfection Reagent for In Vivo Delivery

Altogen Biosystems is a manufacturer of life science research products that includes in vivo transfection reagents designed for tissue-targeted delivery of biomolecules. Altogen’s Nanoparticle In Vivo Transfection Reagent was launched in 2008 and used in over 30 research publications demonstrating highly efficient delivery of cargo nucleic acids (siRNA, microRNA, mRNA, plasmid DNA, and small proteins)… Continue Reading

Even cell distribution in the 6-well plate instead of a ring of cells around the edges?

Performing cell culture experiments in round well plates can often lead to troubling spatial dispersion of the cells.  This can be attributed to culture incubators having high vibrations, non-level incubators or bad practices such as swirling the plate after adding cells.  In order to achieve even distribution of cells in the wells of culture plates,… Continue Reading

What is Oncogene

cancer. Oncogenes can be activated or overexpressed in cells, leading to uncontrolled cell growth, tumor formation, and metastasis. Oncogenes are normal genes that encode for proteins involved in regulating cell growth and division. However, mutations or abnormalities in these genes can lead to their activation or overexpression, which can result in the abnormal regulation of… Continue Reading

Solutions for coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 research

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affected over 65 countries reporting confirmed cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Altogen Biosystems developing following research products to support scientists with a variety of essential coronavirus research resources: Together, we can develop the tools needed to contain the spread of this pathogen. Continue Reading

CRISPR/Cas9 Transfection Optimization

Efficient delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 protein complex can be achieved efficiently through the use of cationic lipid-based transfection reagents. Cells may undergo electroporation to increase the probability of successful transfection. Once inside a target cell, the CRISPR/Cas9 protein complex requires no additional stimulation to start modifying the cell’s genome. Genome modification will occur within one… Continue Reading

Low cell viability due to the freezing or thawing of cancer cell lines

Freeze slow, thaw fast.  The process of freezing and thawing cancer cell lines requires extreme attention to protocol.  For freezing, a good freezing media that contains DMSO is added to the correct number of cells following the manufacturer’s instructions.  The vital part of the freezing process is to ensur that the freezing process is slow. … Continue Reading

Nervous, Respiratory Systems

A medical reference and study chart for the nervous and respiratory systems. Nervous System   Ach acetylcholine AD Alzheimer disease, Alzheimer dementia ADD attention deficit disorder ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ALD adrenoleukodystrophy ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig disease) aanesth, anes anesthesia ANS autonomic nervous system BAER brainstem auditory evoked response BBB blood-brain barrier… Continue Reading

ssDNA: Mass to Moles Convertor

The ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) mass to moles converter is a tool that calculates the number of moles of ssDNA based on its mass in grams and its length in nucleotides. The conversion involves taking into account the molecular weight of the ssDNA, which depends on the number and type of nucleotides in the sequence. The… Continue Reading

Amino Acid Reference Chart

A reference chart for the 20 human amino acids and associated properties.  Code (1): Refers to each amino acid’s single letter code Code (3): Refers to each amino acid’s three letter code pKa: Refers to the negative logarithm of thedissociation constant for the functional group of the amino acid. Also known asthe pH below which… Continue Reading

How to determine mycoplasma contamination?

Mycoplasma contamination is a common occurrence and labs must be vigilant in monitoring and combating contamination issues.  Mycoplasma are bacteria extremely difficult to detect in cultured cells by visual inspection.  Many labs do not incorporate recurring mycoplasma testing until the lab experiences a contamination incident, at which time cleaning and testing procedures are put in… Continue Reading

Forward Transfection or Reverse Transfection?

Forward and reverse transfection protocols each have their significant uses in research.  The main protocol difference between forward and reverse transfection is whether or not the cells are plated the day before transfection (as in forward transfection) or seeded at the same time of the transfection.  Forward transfection is commonly used in situations where the… Continue Reading

AltoFect Transfection Reagent for Primary Cells and Hard-to-transfect Cell Lines

Altogen Biosystems developed AltoFect™ Transfection Reagent – a new generation transfection reagent optimized for high transfection efficiency of primary cells and difficult-to-transfect cell lines. It has been successfully tested to deliver all types of nucleic acids (plasmid DNA constructs, si/miRNA, shRNA, dsRNA, mRNA, etc), small proteins, and negatively charged small molecules. Cancer cell lines and primary cell types, a… Continue Reading

AltoFect v2.0 second generation transfection reagent

AltoFect v2.0, the second generation transfection reagent for primary cell types and hard-to-transfect cell lines. AltoFect transfection reagent exhibits up to 85% transfection efficiency in difficult-to-transfect cells such as T-cells, B-cells, and primary cell cultures. The advance has opened up the path to reliable in vitro testing of realistic responses from cells that were previously… Continue Reading

What is Cell Line

A cell line is a population of cells that are genetically identical and derived from a single cell through cell division. Cell lines are commonly used in biological and medical research to study various cellular processes, gene expression, and disease mechanisms. Cell lines can be derived from various sources, such as animal tissues, human tissues,… Continue Reading

Plasmid DNA and siRNA transfection protocol optimization

There are several experimental parameters that affect transfection efficiency and associated cell viability for siRNA and plasmid DNA transfection experiments: Transfection protocol (method and conditions) Health of cultured cells Purity and concentration of pDNA and/or siRNA Controls Transfection protocol Optimized transfection protocols are available for over 100 cancer cell lines and primary cell types (see… Continue Reading

Stable transfection reagents and techniques

Stable transfection, sometimes called permanent transfection, is the integration of plasmid DNA into the chromosome of cancer cell’s DNA.  The creation of a stable cell line enables the researcher to analyze long term effects of the introduced gene.  Downstream studies incorporating the stable cell line includes overexpression of the gene insert for protein production, cell… Continue Reading

How much antibiotic required for stable cell selection?

Stable cell lines are a crucial laboratory tool that over-expresses a gene of interest in order to study gene functions, screen experimental drugs or produce therapeutic proteins (i.e. recombinant antibodies).  The cell lines will divide and continue to express the inserted transgene.  Briefly, exogenous plasmid DNA is transfected into a host cell line, which is… Continue Reading

Transfection optimization

The most vital aspect of a transfection is ensuring all conditions are optimized, including transfection reagent volume, oligo concentration, cell viability and passage number, lack of negative control activity, activity of positive control and calibrated incubator temperature, humidity and percentage of CO2.  Even if all these parameters are correctly addressed, transfection efficiency must be determined… Continue Reading

Codon Chart

A reference codon chart for the three-letter RNA codes and their corresponding amino acids. Below are the nucleotides and their abbreviations, followed by amino acids and their full name, three letter code, and single letter abbreviations.    2nd position         1st position U C A G 3rd position U Phe Ser Tyr… Continue Reading

Biological Buffer Reference Chart

A reference chart for biological buffers, their pKa, effective pH range, and applicable molecular weights. Values based on 25 ° C and 100mM buffer. Buffer (100mM) pKa (25°C) effective pH range Molecular Weight (g/mol) ACES 6.78 6.1-7.5 182.2 Acetate 4.76 3.6-5.6 59.04 ADA 6.59 6.0-7.2 190.2 Ammonia 9.25 8.8-9.9   AMP 9.69 8.7-10.4 89.14 AMPD… Continue Reading

SDS Gel Dyes & Buffers

Recipes for running SDS protein gel electrophoresis, SDS sample loading dye, and Coomassie staining protein gels. 5x SDS loading dye 125mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.75 20% (v/v) glycerol 10% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol 4% SDS 0.02% bromophenol blue 5x Running buffer (1L) 72 g glycine 15 g Tris-HCl 5 g SDS Gel Stain 2.5g/L Coomassie Blue 45% (v/v)… Continue Reading

Single Percentage Polyacrylamide Gels

Recipe for casting common single percentage protein polyacrylamide gels. Separation Gel (10mL) 7% 10% 12.5% 15% Stacking Gel (4mL) H2O 5.1 mL 4.1 mL 3.3 mL 2.5 mL 2.1 mL Acrylamide/bis (30%) 2.3 mL 3.3 mL 4.1 mL 5.0 mL 0.8 mL Tris-HCL (1.5M, pH 8.8) 2.5 mL 2.5 mL 2.5 mL 2.5 mL 1… Continue Reading

Pharmacology Abbreviations

A reference table for commonly used pharmacology terms and abbreviations. Drugs   ACD Anticonvulsant drug ACR Adverse drug reaction ASA Acetylsalicyclic acid (aspirin) CD Curative dose D, dos Dose, dosage DAW Dispense as written DAWN Drug Abuse Warning Network DIG Digitalis DSB Drug-seeking behavior IND Investigational new drug INH Isoniazid (TB drug) LD Lethal dose… Continue Reading

Medical Assessment Abbreviations

Common medical assessment abbreviations separated into two categories: diagnostic testing and health assessment. ‘Diagnostic testing’ refers to various test types and molecular levels that can be requested to assess and diagnose patients. ‘Health assessment’ refers to the various physical conditions and their descriptions. Diagnostic Testing   ac phos, ACP acid phosphatase AFP alpha fetoprotein A/G… Continue Reading

Scientific Unit Abbreviations

A reference table of scientific units and their abbreviations as well as some prefixes used in the international system of units.  Unit Abbreviations A ampere Å angstrom atm atmosphere Bq becquerel C coulomb °C Celsius, centigrade cal calorie cc cubic centimeter Ci, c Curie cm centimeter cpm counts per minute Da dalton dam decameter dB… Continue Reading

Blood and Cardiovascular Abbreviation Charts

Reference and study charts for convenience. Blood-related Abbreviations   ABMT autologous bone marrow transplant ABO blood groups AC anticoagulant ACT anticoagulant therapy agg, aggl agglutination AHF antihemophilic factor AIHA autoimmune hemolytic anemia ALL acute lymphocytic leukemia AML acute myelogenous leukemia APA antipernicious anemia (factor) AUL acute undifferentiated leukemia B, bl, bld blood baso basophil bl… Continue Reading

Density Calculator

A density calculator is a tool that calculates the density of a substance based on its mass and volume. Density is the measure of how much mass is contained within a given volume, and it is usually expressed in units of grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³) or kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³), although other units… Continue Reading

DNA Gel Loading Dye Recipes

Agarose Gel Loading Dye Recipes (6x) When considering which DNA loading dye to use it’s important to select a dye that won’t obscure your sample. i.e. If looking for a product expected to be ~300 bp, bromophenol blue will run with your sample and may obscure it. With 6x dye, load equivalent ratio of 5… Continue Reading

Agarose Gel and Running Buffer Recipes

Agarose Gel Recipes Agarose (see chart) 1x running buffer 0.1% EtBr (0.5mg/mL stock solution) Microwave for 1-3 minutes until agarose is dissolved, watching carefully as to not over boil solution Add EtBr after microwaving Make 100 mL of agarose solution for a typical cast % Agarose concentration DNA resolution 0.5 1– 30 kb 0.7 800… Continue Reading

Functional Residual Lung Capacity Calculator

A functional residual lung capacity calculator is a tool that calculates the functional residual capacity (FRC) of an individual’s lungs based on their residual volume and expiratory reserve volume. FRC is the volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration, and it is an important parameter in the assessment of lung function… Continue Reading

How to determine cell viability?

Cell viability is a calculation of the number of viable or living cells within the total number of cells.  Although there are now commercially available alternatives to the historical method, trypan blue exclusion is the tried and true method commonly used in the lab.  Briefly, trypan blue dye is added to a cell suspension and… Continue Reading

Reproductive & Urinary Reference Chart

A study chart for reproductive and urinary system medical abbreviations. Female Reproductive System   Ab, AB abortion AFP alpha fetoprotein ARM, AROM artificial rupture of membranes ART assisted reproductive technology BSE breast self-examination BSO bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy BWS battered woman syndrome C section, CS Cesarean section CVS chorionic villus sampling Cx cervix D&C dilation & curettage… Continue Reading

What is in vivo

In vivo refers to experiments or studies that are conducted inside a living organism or cell, usually in a laboratory animal or human subject. The term “in vivo” is Latin for “in the living.” In vivo studies can be conducted on a wide range of biological and medical systems, such as diseases, drug development, or… Continue Reading

Specialized Medical Care and Management Abbreviations

Reference tables for the abbreviations for managed care, U.S. agencies and organizations, and specialized areas/facilities for medical purposes. ‘Managed Care’ refers to common abbreviations when dealing with insurance and payments in the medical field. ‘Agencies & Organizations of the United States’ lists the most common/relevant abbreviations. ‘Specialized areas and facilities’ is a reference chart for… Continue Reading

Lung Inspiratory Capacity Calculator

A lung inspiratory capacity calculator is a tool that calculates the inspiratory capacity of an individual’s lungs based on their tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume. Inspiratory capacity is the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal exhalation, and it is an important parameter in the assessment of lung function and… Continue Reading

Eyes, Ears, Skin Charts

Medical abbreviation chart for the special senses ear & eye and the integumentary system. Ear   AC air conduction AD right ear AOM acute otitis media AS left ear AU both ears CAPD central auditory processing disorder dB decibel EE ear & eye ENT ear, nose & throat ET Eustachian tube HD hearing distance HL… Continue Reading

Endocrine and Gastrointestinal Abbreviation Charts

Endocrine system and gastrointestinal system abbreviation study and reference charts. Endocrine System   AC adrenal cortex ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone ADH antidiuretic hormone CAH congenital adrenal hyperplasia DI diabetes insipidus DKA diabetic ketoacidosis DM diabetes mellitus FSH follicle-stimulating hormone GH growth hormone HCG human chorionic gonadotropin HGF human growth factor ICSH interstitial cell-stimulating hormone IDDM insulin-dependent… Continue Reading

Percent Yield Calculator

A percent yield calculator is a tool that calculates the percentage yield of a chemical reaction based on the amount of product obtained in the reaction and the theoretical yield of the reaction. The percent yield is a measure of the efficiency of the reaction and is defined as the percentage of the theoretical yield… Continue Reading

What is the benefit of using an electroporation buffer

The process of electroporation exposes the cells to a high-voltage pulse of electricity to disrupt the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane causing the formation of temporary pores.  Any charged molecules (e.g. RNA, DNA) are forced into the cells thru the pores. Electroporation buffers are formulations that mimic cellular cytoplasm composition; thus, enhancing pore resealing… Continue Reading

Blood Pressure Chart

A blood pressure chart for interpreting systolic (the measurement of the heart contracting and pumping blood) and diastolic (the measure of when the heart is relaxed) numbers. A systolic pressure of 140+ indicates high blood pressure, regardless of diastolic pressure A diastolic pressure of 90+ indicates high blood pressure, regardless of systolic pressure A systolic… Continue Reading

Changing transfection plate format from a 6-well to a 96-well format

Moving a transfection reaction from a 96-well plate to a 6-well plate, or vice versa, and wanting to achieve identical results is not a trivial pursuit.  It is well known that lipoplexes adhere to the plastic surfaces of cell culture wells.  As one can conclude, this decreases the amount of complexed material freely available to… Continue Reading

Importance of cell passage number and cell confluency for efficient transfection

The viability, confluency and passage number are all vital parameters for a successful transfection.  Here are helpful hints for each of these aspects: Viability Viability is the percentage of living cells in a suspension Determined using trypan blue exclusion Cells are considered to be healthy if viability is greater than 90% Confluency Confluency is the… Continue Reading

Where to purchase cancer cell lines?

Cancer cell lines must be purchased from trustworthy vendors (i.e. ATCC, Sigma-Aldrich, DSMZ), along with signing licenses and agreements.  These large cell bank vendors have established good quality control processes, document controls and facilities that are able to offer well characterized cell lines. Continue Reading

Caspase-3/7 cell line screen for test compound

Caspase 3/7 activity is a cell based assay that measures apoptosis.  Commercially available reagents enable high-throughput screening of apoptosis inducing test compounds or contract research organizations can readily perform the compound screening.  A brief overview of the protocol is as follows: Cells in logarithmic growth are seeded in a 96-well plate Depending on the scope… Continue Reading

Tissue culture using flasks vs dishes for cell lines

Flasks and dishes that are cell culture coated are both acceptable consumables to use for cell culture.  Employing sterile techniques allows an experienced scientist to use either item, with pros and cons listed here for each system. Filtered Flasks Narrow opening translates to a lesser chance of contaminant entering the flask Ideal for long term… Continue Reading

Cell passage: How to correctly dilute and split cultured cells

There are many different cell culture techniques. Utilizing correct cell passaging methods is important to keep cell line in exponential growth curve, therefore making it a good model as a host for transfection experiments. “Cell passage” is a term used by other scientists to demonstrate the following process: Wash cells with PBS Detach cells from… Continue Reading

Muscle & Bone

A reference and study chart for abbreviations of the muscular and skeletal systems. Muscular System   abd abduction ACL anterior cruciate ligament add adduction ADL activities of daily living ART active resistance training BMD Becker muscular dystrophy DTR deep tendon reflex EMG electromyography EMS electric muscle stimulator EOM extraocular muscles IM intramuscular Lig, L ligament… Continue Reading

How to ship cells as a live culture?

Shipping cells to collaborators can be accomplished by either sending them a frozen aliquot on dry ice or by sending a live culture.  Sending a live culture has the advantages of the cells continuing their exponential growth to aid in timing of experiments.  This is accomplished by completely filling the flask with culture medium, closing… Continue Reading

What transfection controls do I need to include in my experiment?

Scientists understand the importance of controls in experiment. There are at least three transfection controls that should be included on every transfection plate: a positive control, negative control and non-treated control. Positive Controls Transfecting a positive control ensures that the system being utilized is working and the delivery conditions are optimal.  The results of the… Continue Reading

What is the best method to detach cultured cells?

Cultured adherent cells routinely need to be detached and collected for counting or passaging.  Detaching cells can be accomplished by either mechanical or enzymatic methods. Mechanical: cell scraping is a good option for cells that are sensitive to trypsin but can cause damage to cells; also can be used when collecting cellular components for western… Continue Reading

Lung Vital Capacity Calculator

A lung vital capacity calculator is a tool that calculates the vital capacity of an individual’s lungs based on their age, gender, height, and weight. Vital capacity is the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after taking a deep breath, and it is an important parameter in the assessment of lung function and… Continue Reading

Moles of ssDNA ends Calculator

The Moles of ssDNA ends calculator is a tool that calculates the number of moles of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) ends based on the amount of ssDNA in moles and the number of ends present. This calculation is important in various applications in molecular biology and biotechnology, such as cloning, sequencing, and gene expression analysis. The… Continue Reading

What is in vitro

In vitro refers to experiments or studies that are conducted outside of a living organism or cell, usually in a laboratory setting. The term “in vitro” is Latin for “in glass,” which refers to the use of glassware, such as test tubes, petri dishes, and flasks, to conduct experiments. In vitro studies can be conducted… Continue Reading

Microscope Magnification Calculator

A microscope magnification calculator is a tool that calculates the magnification of a microscope based on the characteristics of the lenses and the eyepiece used. Magnification is the degree to which an object is enlarged when viewed through a microscope, and it is a critical parameter in microscopy for visualizing and studying microscopic structures and… Continue Reading

Actual Yield Calculator

An actual yield calculator is a tool that calculates the actual yield of a chemical reaction based on the amount of product obtained in the reaction and the theoretical yield of the reaction. The actual yield is the amount of product that is actually obtained in a chemical reaction, while the theoretical yield is the… Continue Reading

Total Lung Capacity Calculator

A total lung capacity calculator is a tool that calculates the total lung capacity of an individual based on their vital capacity and residual volume. Total lung capacity is the maximum amount of air that can be held in the lungs after taking a deep breath, and it is an important parameter in the assessment… Continue Reading

Moles to Grams Calculator

A moles to grams calculator is a tool that converts the number of moles of a substance to its corresponding mass in grams. In chemistry, a mole is a unit used to express the amount of a substance, and it is defined as the amount of a substance that contains the same number of particles… Continue Reading

Medical Profession Abbreviations

A reference chart of professional designations in the medical field. ARNP Advaced Registered Nurse Practitioner ATR-BC Registered Art Therapist-Board Certified CCT Certified Cardiographic Technician CDA Certified Dental Assistant CDT Certified Dental Technician CMA Certified Medical Assistant CNMT Certified Nuclear Medicine Technologist CO Certified Orthotist COMT Certified Ophthalmic Medical Technologist COT Certified Ophthalmic Technician COTA Certified… Continue Reading

Buffer Capacity Calculator

A buffer capacity calculator is a tool that calculates the buffer capacity of a solution based on its concentration, pH, and acid dissociation constant (Ka). Buffer capacity is a measure of the ability of a buffer solution to resist changes in pH when an acid or base is added to it. The formula for calculating… Continue Reading

Celsius – Kelvin Calculator

A Celsius to Kelvin converter is a tool that converts temperatures from the Celsius scale to the Kelvin scale, or vice versa. The Celsius and Kelvin scales are two commonly used temperature scales in the world. The Kelvin scale is an absolute temperature scale, which means that it starts at absolute zero (-273.15 °C) and… Continue Reading

Celsius – Fahrenheit Calculator

A Celsius to Fahrenheit converter is a tool that converts temperatures from the Celsius scale to the Fahrenheit scale, or vice versa. The Celsius and Fahrenheit scales are two commonly used temperature scales in the world. The formula for converting Celsius to Fahrenheit is: F = (C × 1.8) + 32 Where: The formula for… Continue Reading

Wavelength Calculator

A wavelength calculator is a tool that calculates the wavelength of a wave based on its frequency and speed. In physics, wavelength is the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs of a wave. It is usually represented by the Greek letter lambda (λ) and is measured in units of meters, centimeters, or nanometers. The… Continue Reading

Impulse Calculator

An impulse calculator is a tool that calculates the impulse of an object based on its mass, velocity, and time of impact or interaction. In physics, impulse is defined as the change in momentum of an object caused by an external force over a period of time. The formula for impulse is: Impulse = Force… Continue Reading

Density Calculator

A density calculator is a tool that calculates the density of a substance based on its mass and volume. The density of a substance is the measure of how much mass is contained within a given volume. It is usually expressed in units of grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³) or kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³),… Continue Reading

Cardiac Index Calculator

A Cardiac Index (CI) calculator is a tool that calculates the cardiac index of a person based on their cardiac output and body surface area. The cardiac index is a measure of the cardiac output adjusted for body size and is used to assess cardiac function and output in a clinical setting. The formula for… Continue Reading

Body Surface Area Calculator

A Body Surface Area (BSA) calculator is a tool that calculates the surface area of a person’s body based on their height and weight. BSA is a measure of the total surface area of a person’s skin and is commonly used in medicine to calculate drug dosages, assess burns and other skin injuries, and estimate… Continue Reading

BMI calculator

A BMI (Body Mass Index) calculator is a tool that calculates the BMI of an individual based on their weight and height. The BMI is a measure of body fat based on a person’s weight and height, and it is commonly used to assess whether someone is underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese. The formula… Continue Reading

Pressure Calculator

A pressure calculator is a tool that calculates the pressure of a gas or fluid based on its force and area. In physics, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area and is usually measured in units of pascals (Pa), pounds per square inch (psi), or atmospheres (atm). The formula for calculating pressure… Continue Reading

Molarity Calculator

A molarity calculator is a tool that calculates the molarity of a solution based on the amount of solute and volume of solvent used. Molarity is a measure of the concentration of a solution and is defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. The formula for calculating molarity is: Molarity… Continue Reading